Plaque is a structured resilient yellow-grayish substance that adheres tenaciously to the tooth surfaces including removable and fixed restorations. It is an organised bio-film that contains primarily bacteria in a matrix of glycoproteins and extracellular polysaccharides.
Current treatment for periodontitis involves scraping dental plaque, the polymicrobial biofilm, off the tooth, a procedure called scaling. Root planing involves scaling the tooth’s root. Scaling and root planing are often referred to as deep cleaning.
The objective for periodontal scaling and root planing is to remove dental plaque and calculus (tartar), which house bacteria that release toxins which cause inflammation to the gum tissue and surrounding bone.